Sunday, May 24, 2020
When creating a business model there are ample decisions and choices to make and consider. Those decisions directly correlate to how successful the business can become as well as the effectiveness of the company s growth. Bad business models can destroy a company and damage its reputation. As consumers, we see this frequently with the weekly closings. Some as brutal as the destruction of Enron, and other company breakdowns as simple as the monthly closings of JCPenney s which has led to 2,250 layoffs. So consequently, you can observe and benefit from the use of efficient business plans or view and examine the damage and destruction done by inefficient business plans. Through thorough research, we will examine two methods that can help a company achieve a proficient business plan. The use of process selection, and the choices made when implementing your facility layout can directly contribute to the success rate of your business. To begin with the first topic for discussion, we first must properly define process selection. Ã¢â¬Å"Process selection refers to the strategic decisions of selecting the kind of production process to have in a manufacturing plantÃ¢â¬ (Ch. 6 Process Selection and Facility Layout). This method refers to the ways services and goods are made and delivered therefore, influencing multiple aspects of a corporation, including their capacity planning and layout of their facilities. Process selection is used primarily when planning the distribution of new productsShow MoreRelatedThe Key Elements Of A Successful Business1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin small business. I want to know what it takes to build a successful business. What are the skills needed to start a new business? What are some of the steps to building a business model and plan? I am working on getting my degree in business. I am a general manager and will be soon help the company expand in opening two new stores in the next few months. This is something that is exciting to be able to expand the brand. This experience will help me when I am ready to own my own business. I knowRead MoreServe As The Contracting Officer s Representative915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescontracts for the Census Hiring and Employment Check (CHEC) program, the Commerce Business Systems (CBS) program, as well as the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) contract. Responsible for performing all duties required to put a contract in place, this includes performing Market Research, developing Statements of Work, working independently or with Acquisition to develop Acquisition Plans and Source Selection Plans, participating in the source selection process, developing Independent GovernmentRead MoreRisks For An Entrepreneur Who Becomes Emotionally Attached Essay936 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages4-3: There are many risks for an entrepreneur who becomes emotionally attached to an idea to a new business. One of risk is that it might waste the entrepreneur a lot of time and money. Another risk is that new ide a can destroy the achievement they have got before. 4-10: Tools for conducting primary research: 1. Customer surveys and questionnaires: Creating a surveys or questionnaires for collecting customerÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas. 2. Focus groups: Focus group refers a form of qualitative research that a groupRead More Creating a Problem Statement for Kudler Fine Foods Essay1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCreating a Problem Statement for Kudler Fine Foods Kudler Fine Foods is a gourmet grocery store chain located in the San Diego California area. The vision of Kudler Fine Foods is to become the premiere gourmet grocery store for shoppers who are interested in purchasing the finest meats, produce, cheese and wines (Kudler 2003). After opening its first store in La Jolla, California inRead MoreData Modeling Concepts1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesare data models and the importance of data model. Building a good data model helps organizations in software development, data base design and product maintenance. The document explains the theory, even if it looks like the organizations are spending substantial amount of resources on developing data models, but still it helps organization, keeping the costs low and build a better product. Database constitutes of data structures and is represented by conceptual data structures. Data models are abstractRead MoreChoosing A Business Model For My Own Future Business900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor my formal business report, analyzing all the scenario given, I am planning to choose option B. It will give me an opportunity to make a business model for my own future business, which is opening a restaurant. Option A is also a good choice for me to work on as my academic courses are related to them and I have my future plan to work on one of the Fortune 500 companies after graduation. Since I am not sure where I will be applying for job or which company I will be working for, I choose not toRead MoreRapid, Volatile, and Discontinuous Change: Impact on Strategic Management and Organizations1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe main challenge to management is the creation and implementation of strategic approaches and tools that measure and build organizational capabilities, which continuo usly renew themselves and leap competition. Managers face the daunting task of creating novel methods which transcend traditional strategic approaches and tools, in a less stable, certain, and complex environment (Voepel, Leibold, Mahmoud, 2004, p.124). Moreover, organizations are faced with the challenge of assessing and utilizingRead MoreRoom for Dessert Case Summary Essay1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRoom for Dessert Case Summary Situation This case presents a business plan for a startup company called quot;Room for Dessertquot; (RFD), which is a fine dining restaurant focused on serving a niche market that includes desserts and beverages such as tea, wine and spirits. RFD has created a business model which provides a strategy to differentiate itself from typical fine dining restaurants by offering an unpretentious atmosphere focused on serving affordable, high-quality desserts. The companyRead MoreHow Can Disrupt The Norm? Essay1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHow to Disrupt the Norm If you look around at the businesses which you encounter each day, you will notice most of them are based on one of those five models, or are a hybrid of one or two of those models combined. After combining or utilizing them individually to form new ideas for potential business concepts, you must begin to think of how to compete with the established incumbents. This section is designed to help you think about how to do so, and develop your idea selection to its fullestRead MoreBusiness Plan For A New Business Program1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhenever a new business program is created, it explicitly employs a business model that is suitable for that particular business, which describes the design, the delivery and the mechanism it employs to achieve success. The core meaning of a business model is to define the value it delivers to its customers, make customer pay for the value provided, and converts these payments to profit (Teece, 2009). There are different types of business mode ls and they suit different types of business. Berry (n.d)
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1088 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/09/21 Category Education Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: Children Essay Influence Essay Television Essay Did you like this example? Children love to watch TV and prefer to stay Ã¢â¬Å"gluedÃ¢â¬ to the TV screen all day, rather than playing outside. In the USA, 47% of children ages 2 to 18 years have a television set in their bedrooms. On a typical day, they spend on average of 5. 5 hours using media, including television, computer games and the Internet (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001). TV is the number one after-school activity for 6 to 17 years old. Although television is loved by children and has helped them a lot, it has influenced them in a negative way. Over the past decade television has become a big part of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s routine. Even though many parents feel that it is just there for entertainment or another form to keep a child company o it still may have a negative influence on them without the parents or guardians even knowing. Even though many television sets or cable companies now have parental locks/guards children can still be influenced or exposed to negative behavior, not age ap propriate language thru shows, commercials etc. Television does not only influence negative behavior but it also takes time away from a childÃ¢â¬â¢s social and educational time. Many children who watch a lot of television is likely to have lower grades, read less, even become overweight. In the past 10-15 years television has changed drastically. The amount of violence, sexuality, drug and alcohol abuse that is shown and really is the main theme of many shows today really does have an effect on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s way of seeing or portraying how life can be. An adult may see a television show with all of the above in it and think and know that all of is not real itÃ¢â¬â¢s just for entertainment. As, for a child they perceive it as being true, that itÃ¢â¬â¢s really happening or that itÃ¢â¬â¢s normal and safe to act or do the things they do. Especially if the parents allows them to watch the program. It may not even be a television show, it can be the cartoons that are now being done and how the news portrays the world and the events that occur. Many advertisements and commercials are even a bit too much for a child to watch. Many may agree that the way television shows are for kids now has changed drastically. Over the past years they have created so many networks like Nickelodeon, cartoon network, nick Jr, Disney, and many many others! There is even an option on certain cable companies to have the favorite shows available anytime of the day. Although many of the cartoons are harmless they do show violence and many of the shows do show a lot of being disrespectful, having different attitudes so when children, pre teens see this they think itÃ¢â¬â¢s cool or thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how they should act because their favorite child actor or teen idol does it. There are a few decent programs and networks that do show positive and educational information. It may be hard for many parents to get very strict or to monitor every moment a child watches television because of how society is today. We now live in a time where both parents need to work everyone is very busy, you hardly see the importance of a family eating dinner around a table, if you visit someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s home you would probably notice everyone is doing their own thing whether its mom or dad on a computer/laptop, a sibling playing video games while another is watching television or texting on their phone. So when a parent does notice or wants to cut back on television time even gaming itÃ¢â¬â¢s too late or becomes very difficult because the child has that routine and it can become difficult to change or even get the child to understand why they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t spend so much time playing video games or watching television. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s when it becomes important to teach a child from when they are very small and also have limits for them. There have been debates on how television has changed. Many like the baby boomers cannot believe how different it has become. They re member just having cartoons on maybe 1 or 2 channels. Nothing like with how it is today. Many also donÃ¢â¬â¢t see the problem; many adults think its nice having the variety of different cartoons and programs for children because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have it while growing up. But, there are also a big percentage of parents who feel that some programs go too far and are concerned of what the future of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s television will become. There are many ways that parents can do to help their children from watching so much television and getting them more involved in programs or simply just turning the television off for a few hours a day. Many articles simply state that if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to turn off the television they can watch television with their children and select the appropriate shows for them to watch. Others suggest having limits of the amount of television they are allowed to watch during the week. Simply turning it off during meals, and study time which al so helps the child, so that they can see the importance to focus while studying and the importance of having meals with the family. For those parents who are always working or very busy then they have the option if their cable company offers it, they can block and set a timer for what they can see and how long they can watch the television. As time goes by if parents become more involved in what their child is watching then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s hope for a change. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s rare to watch regular television without hearing a curse word, or the image of sex or how the ideal man or woman is suppose to look like, so when children feed into all that it can send mixed signals of how they should be or act. So if parents become more pro active and simply monitor and become more involved then hopefully it can change overtime. And it would help the children become more involved with their school work; it would be able to change the rate of obesity and their behaviors. If parents or guardians voice their opinions more eventually someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s voice would be heard and changes can be made. Until then since this is a way of life many parents should have more precaution and just be more aware DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Influence Television Has on Children" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
How to Write a Term Paper Wiseessays.com - an in Depth Anaylsis on What Works and What Doesn't There are lots of samples on the site where a client can assess the writer's writing skills and fashion. Finally, you will find a definitely custom essay order. Should you ever make an attempt to come across the very best custom essay online writing service that might not fail you, congratulations, you might have picked ideal one particular. When you do a research, it's necessary for you to use a specific citation style. Phrase paper writing, since the name suggests suggests that the student is providing an assignment at the initiation of the program unit in which he's crucial to existing at the conclusion of the semester. Quite a few students is usually fearful of their upcoming life and its development. Furthermore, you can get plenty of students who try and combine studying with work and it's not uncomplicated. If you're a single of individuals students who need to advance pers onal essay help education and learning to boost your positions on the job you should have really an active plan which stops you from completing diverse academic initiatives punctually. The sole difference is the area of study and the necessities of the subject. The price of adoption is still another crucial issue. So right here, how to compose a term paper organizations are carrying out the precise same, helping college students in return of a minor amount of income that's nothing in comparison to what they're accomplishing. So it is suggested to buy an actual product in order to find a perfect work. There is the perfect alternative for you. You can receive all the things and you don't will want to visit the marketplace. You may encounter some unreliable packages on the market, but just don't dupe yourself by cheap products. How to Get Started with How to Write a Term Paper Wiseessays.com? Before you commence working on your essay, take a look at all requirements that need to be followed. When it's the perfect school essay writing supplier, it's very likely to offer you homework on demand. College admission essay is essential after you wish to put in the college or university. When you're going to have college best application essay you might need to be positive in its excellent. Things You Should Know About How to Write a Term Paper Wiseessays.com Your give great results ought to be vivid and impress absolutely everybody, specially your tutor. So, now you see that it might be an honestly time-consuming company which necessitates tons of hours. Lucky you in the event that you have this kind of opportunity. Otherwise, it is going to be a fun for you. The Nuiances of How to Write a Term Paper Wiseessays.com You've got an opportunity to speak together with your writer at any moment you desire. You ought to bear in mind our writers can write every tiny thing even if it appears impossible. For the motive that you ought ton't underestimate the importance of the papers you've been assigned, as though you don't compose and effectively compose your college phrase papers and submit them on time you're able to kiss your valuable de gree superior bye. Formal writing demands simplicity and accuracy. Even essays written employing the stream of consciousness technique have a particular goal at the conclusion of the essay. Before you commence writing an assignment, make an outline. Seasoned writers will take pains to finish a paper of the maximum quality for you. You even get excepts from every paper. If you really need to be educated then you might have to learn how to express yourself on paper. To start with, you should keep in mind that a research paper is an official paper. The expression paper is among the academic writing assignment styles. Custom cheap essay writer here are frequently well prepared to adhere to all your requirements and compose a perfect essay. If you own a choice choose a book you might enjoy. You may want to understand that it's reputable to order essays for money. Every of us knows that currently it's simple to order customized essays simply and rapidly since there is surely a wonderful deal of on-line customized essay sites which supply it. You could have an easy private premium provide and to cover essay online.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
In a culture such as Afghanistan where women are constantly being degraded and treated as property, one can imagine their emotional stability is far from being strong. The women of the novel A Thousand Splendid Suns, are continually faced with a whirlwind of abuse and death and are constantly rejected the emotional support they seek in their times of desperation. Although, in time of war, when physical shelter is vital in their survival, it is emotional shelter that drives the difficult decisions the main characters face and the novels key plot in the heart retching story that shatters the hearts of many readers. Mariam was a young girl who adored both her mother and her father. Unfortunately, Jalil, Mariams father, was a rich man who did not play a big part in MariamÃ¢â¬â¢s life as a child. Mariam praised her father when he came over with presents for her. Later in the novel, Mariam makes a request to watch a movie in her fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ cinema with all her brothers and sisters for her birthday; her fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ vow ultimately fails. The reason that Tariq might not think that it is a bad idea is because even though he has experienced it first hand he might hope that the United states will help the suffering people of his country. In helping to fight against the Taliban who are causing all the trouble in this country. Although Laila does not view the United States Joining in the same way she says Not so bad? People dying? Women, children, old people? Homes destroyed again. To Laila it would all be the same because she has seen people die and because of this experiencing such things it has effected her physically and emotionally. Laila would add that war brings death , which would mean that a lot of people would lose their lives in it, the deaths of people would emotionally break down families, which would all lead to being completely miserable and unhappy. Both Laila and Tariqs contradicting views on war would have to do with personal experiences that each individually had so they could say such things about the war in their country. Laila and Tariq are not Just the only ones who have experienced war. The reason is because war has happened in many countries whether it be civil or controversial and one specifically that the United States went into to interfere with was the Vietnam War. The United States entered this war to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam . To do such a thing they used a containment policy that used military, economic, and diplomatic strategies so that they could reduce the spread of communism which would in their eyes enhance Americas security and prevent a domino affect of Communism spreading all over. This single war out of many that have happened having to do with the U. S. this was the longest war in American history. This was one of the most unpopular American wars that happened during the twentieth century. This war alone caused nearly 60,000 American deaths alone not including those who were injured. Because of this war today many Americans still ask if it was worth American effort in Vietnam or if it was Just a careless mistake, or an actual necessary war to go interfere in Just so that the South Vietnamese would be protected from a totalitarian government. Because of wars like these many people re affected and lose family members that should still be alive but are not do to choices that were taken in Joining another countries war and helping with their War its self affects many aspects of many peoples every day lifes and with the United States reputation of Joining other wars to interfere with their problems has become very common and not only affects civilians personally but economically as well. Today the war in Iraq has a price of $59,202,453,105 cost of war in Iraq to our community and , 143 cost of war in Pakistan to our community and is still climbing by the day. This very large amount of money shouldnt even be being asted because we shouldnt even be over seas trying to fix other countries problems. The main reason that anyone might argue as reason that soldiers are staying in Iraq when there is no war happening is because of the large abundance of oil that this country has that we the United States can get a hold of for a discount possibly because of helping resolve their problems. Because of being over seas the money spent on keeping military soldiers there is becoming more and more expensive. Which leads us to see the total amount of money($81 ,502,827,471) that wars have cost since 2001 . Because of the United States actions we as a nation are in ational debt which is still rising unfortunately especially in the area of war which is also causing many military soldiers to lose their lives because of problems that they shouldnt have went into. For this reason things like economies suffering, people dying, and problems being solved each make many people have different points of view of wars like the ones that are happening in our world today but one thing that will never change is that people will always die and economies will suffer because of wars ,and if we dont try to change this then people who make the decisions to go to war will be sending eople off to their deaths and will worsen our economy which would then make their own people suffer. Because of things like this a wise man of our countries U. S. Army once said Wars can be prevented Just as surely as they can be provoked and we who fail to prevent them, must share the guilt for the dead. (Omar N. Bradley, General of the U. S. Army, 1893-1981) which will continue to happen if we do keep on happening if we the United States dont take into consideration the consequences that come with their actions when interfering in another countries problems.
Friday, April 3, 2020
Ch 3: Strategic Niche Management Paper 3.10 Strategic niche management and an integrative evolutionary multi-level perspective on technological transitions Strategic Niche Management (SNM) and its related Multi-Level Perspective (MLP) arose out of the sociology of technology and was originally developed to understand technological transitions and regime shifts (Schot et al., 1994; Schot and Geels, 2008; Rip and Kemp, 1998; Kemp et al., 1998; Kemp et al. 2001; Geels, 2002, 2005; Kemp, 1994; Levinthal, 1998; Schot, 1998). As Geels (2002:1259) points out, the Multi-Level Perspective is not meant as ontological description of reality, but as a set of analytical and heuristic concepts to understand the mechanics of socio-technical change. It integrates many of the main concepts which are touched on to varying degrees and with differing emphasis and focus elsewhere in the literature and thus can be seen as a good foundation to approach the broader literature. Within MLP, three interrelated dimensions are important: socio-techni cal systems: the tangible elements of the technology needed to fulfil societal functions; social groups: the actors who maintain and refine the elements of the sociotechnical systems; and socio-technical rules (or regime): formal and informal rules that guide and orient activities of social groups. In this framework, actors in social groups are not assumed to act autonomously, as they do in the neoclassical model, but rather, in the context of social structures and by normative, formal, and cognitive rules. These rules form a coordinating context that guides and orients action. On the other hand, rules are reinforced and changed through action and enactment. Rules do not exist individually, but are linked together in semi-coherent set of rules called regimes. Rip and Kemp (1998:340) and Geels (2004) have widened the original concept of technological regimes first set out by Nelson and Winter (1982) to indicate that rules, including cognitive routines (Dosi, 1982) are not only embedded in the minds of engineers in their research and development activities, but are also in elements of the socio-technical system including scientists, users, policy makers and special interest groups. We will write a custom essay sample on Ch 3: Strategic Niche Management specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Ch 3: Strategic Niche Management specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Ch 3: Strategic Niche Management specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Rules include the problem agendas (reducing carbon, for instance), guiding principles, rules of thumb, standards, government regulations, sense of identity, and the role of expectations. Social groups interact and form networks with mutual dependencies, resulting in the alignment of activities. This intergroup coordination is graphically represented as the meso-level in Figure 3.7 with the concept of socio-technical regime. System stability can arise from mutually reinforcing established networks and ways of thinking. Although skills can be updated, and contracts broken or changed, core-competencies (Leonard-Barton, 1995) and legally binding contracts (Walker, 2000) can also become sources of rigidity in a shifting environment. Systems are also stabilized because they become embedded in society through institutions. People change their lifestyles to suit them and formal regulations and infrastructure created to serve them. The alignment between these heterogeneous elements leads to technological momentum (Hughes, 1994) and lock-in reinforced by social relationships of mutual role expectations and embedded interests such as industry associations (Hughes, 1987:76-7; Unruh, 2000). The material aspects of sociotechnical systems also contribute to stability, because of sunk costs Ã¢â¬â once investments are in place they are not easily abandoned (Walker, 2000). This means, for many reasons, socio-technical systems are characterised by stability, not by any means inertia, but dynamic stability, meaning innovation still occurs but is of an incremental nature. Because these stabilising mechanisms can lead to lock-in, it can be difficult for radical innovations to diffuse. So how does this model theorise the emergence of new socio-technological pathways? Strategic Niche Management theorists argue that for many new technological innovations market opportunities are not readily available as new technologies may differ radically from incumbent system. In many cases, there may be no established markets and no fixed preferences. For diffusion to take place, consumers must be introduced to new products and associated behaviours, firms and organisations must realign production routines, supporting infrastructure may need to be installed and, most likely, new regulations and policies need to be passed to govern all these 177 interactions, all of which take place within a cultural discourse (Lie and SÃ ¸rensen, 1996; Nelson, 1994, 1995). To prepare the new technological innovation for the market, a technological niche may provide a protected space or Ã¢â¬Å"incubation roomÃ¢â¬ to nuture a specific set of interactions between actors, issues and objects. As Rosenberg (1976:195) notes: Ã¢â¬ ¦most inventions are relatively crude and inefficient at the date when they are first recognised as constituting a new invention. They are, of necessity badly adapted to many of the ultimate uses to which they will eventually be put. Within the niche, different selection criteria and public support for the technology can exist separate from broader market forces. SNM work conceptualises a bottom up process in which novelties emerge in technological niches, then conquer market niches, and eventually replace and transform dominant technologies and regimes (Schot and Geels, 2008). Within the literature three crucial internal niche processes have been identified (Schot et al., 1994; Kemp et al., 1998; Kemp et al., 2001; Hoogma et al., 2002): Technical learning processes relate to research and development into the technological object; the assessment of new markets and the nurturing of new user preferences; policy experimentation to facilitate a new re gulatory regime and also investigating what complimentary infrastructures are available or are necessary for the niche to develop; Figure 3.7 Multiple levels in a nested hierarchy The building of socio-technological constituencies involves the formation of social groups which may include: scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, financiers, early adopters amongst consumers, policy makers and new societal coalitions (lobby groups) to support the new innovation and invest in its development; and thirdly, The articulation of visions and expectations to provide direction to learning processes, attracting attention and legitimising protection from the broader market. Expectations of the future need to be built and shared by actors and their content gradually substantiated through project developments. Figure 3.8 A dynamic (phased) multilevel perspective on system innovations In this framework it is argued that niche innovations are rarely able to bring about great transformations without the help of higher order forces and processes. Thus, for niches to develop they should also ideally be responding to changes at the landscape, or macro level, in a way that the established regime cannot. This broader largely exogenous environment is formed by the socio-technical landscape. The context of this landscape is heterogeneous across different locations and may include aspects such as economic growth (or decline), broad political coalitions, cultural and normative values, environmental problems and resource scarcities (or abundances). It also includes the large-scale material context of society, for example, the material and spatial arrangements of cities, factories, highways, and electricity infrastructures (Rip and Kemp, 1998). Such landscapes are generally beyond the influence of actors, and cannot be changed at will, usually taking decades to shift. The three conceptual levels in Figures 3.7 and 3.8 can be understood as a nested hierarchy, but the key point of the MLP is that transitions come about through the interplay of processes at different levels in different phases (Table 3.2). Both internal niche dynamics and external development at the regime and landscape level are important for wider breakthrough and diffusion. Having tapped into innovation theory to investigate the mechanics of change in the economic system we now move onto complexity theory which is another related research programme attempting to bring many of these heterodox research currents under a coherent epistemological banner. As will be discussed, this research agenda has been identified as holding great promise for building on the natural affinities of physical and social systems, which has been identified as a Ã¢â¬Ëconstant dream of geographyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Thrift, 1999:32). Table 3.2 Dynamic phases in the Multi Level Perspective 3.11 What are complex systems and why is Ã¢â¬Ëcomplexity theoryÃ¢â¬â¢ important? The study of complex systems has been increasingly put forward since the 1960s as an alternative scientific paradigm to what has been termed the mechanistic approaches such as the Ã¢â¬Å"clockworkÃ¢â¬ theories of Newtonian physics in the physical sciences and neoclassical economics in the social sciences. In contrast to such Ã¢â¬Å"reductionist systemsÃ¢â¬ , as say, a rubber ball rolling around into the bottom of a bowl (as described by NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Laws of Motion), complex systems exhibit unpredictable emergent properties. Common examples include the co-ordinating ability of ants to form g iant colonies capable of food gathering, distribution and defence; the flocking of birds or schools of fish that use simple rules to travel and avoid predators; the neural interconnections which underpin the development of thoughts and personality in the human brain; and the herding behaviour and other Ã¢â¬Å"anomalousÃ¢â¬ patterns exhibited in stock markets that cannot be explained by the underlying value of an individual stock. The unifying logic behind these phenomena is that the relationships between their elements come together in a way which can only be classified at higher levels than the individual units (Coveny and Highfield, 1995:7). What is more, change in a complex system can result in observations that are very difficult if not impossible to predict, especially in cases where phenomena are highly sensitive to initial system conditions. One of the most famous expressions of this notion was put forward by Edward Lorenz in a talk delivered to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1972 titled, Ã¢â¬Å"Does the flap of a butterflyÃ¢â¬â¢s wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas,Ã¢â¬ which later gave rise to the popular notion of the butterfly effect, related to chaos theory. In this case, the inherent difficulty in predicting weather events was highlighted. In one seminal work, Warren Weaver (1948) describes two types of complexity: Disorganised complexity: arises from a system of many parts, where the random interactions of elements of the system mean that the system as a whole has properties that can be identified with statistical methods, for example, gas molecules in a container. Orga nised complexity: arises due to non-random or correlated interactions between the elements in a system. These elements combine to create differentiated structures which can then interact with other systems. The coordinated system manifests properties which are not carried out or dictated by individual elements Ã¢â¬â these properties emerge with no Ã¢â¬Å"guiding handÃ¢â¬ . This second type of complexity, which has long been studied by biologists in the context of evolutionary theory, has attracted particular focus for researchers in the area of complex adaptive systems (e.g. Jencks, 1996). Johnson (2007) outlines the following attributes for such systems: The number of elements, types of elements, and the relationship between the elements in the system are non-trivial (i.e. it has to be big enough for emergence to occur); The system has a memory, or includes feedback; The system can adapt itself according to its history or feedback; The relationship between the system and its environment are non-trivial and non-linear; The system can be influenced by or adapt itself to its environment; and The system is highly sensitive to initial conditions. Chris Langton, quoted in (Lewin, 1993:12-13) describes complexity in the following terms: From the interaction of the individual components [of a system] Ã¢â¬ ¦ emerges some kind of property Ã¢â¬ ¦ something you couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have predicted from what you knew of the component parts Ã¢â¬ ¦ And the global property, this emergent behaviour, feeds back to influence the behaviour Ã¢â¬ ¦ of the individuals that produced it. Roger Lewin (1993:backcover), a major proponent of complexity theory, postulates: Complexity theory is destined to be the dominant trend of the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦ This revolutionary technique can explain any type of complex system Ã¢â¬â multinational corporations, or mass extinctions, or ecosystems such as rainforests, or human consciousness. All are built on the same, few rules. As Thrift (1999:34) notes, most writers on complexity theory then go on to usually lay claim to a whole series of fields of study which they assert are part of this impulse, including: chaos theory, fractal modelling, artificial life, cellular automata, neural nets and the like. This includes a companion vocabulary which can be both technical and metaphorical Ã¢â¬â chaos, attractors, fractals, emergent orders, selforganisation, implicate order, autopoiesis (a self-creating system), and so on. Thrift 185 thus cautions those who seek to use Ã¢â¬Å"complexity theoryÃ¢â¬ as a unified theoretical anti-reductionist response, as Ã¢â¬â to a certain extent, any definition of complexity is likely to be beholden to the perspective brought to bear upon it. While recognising that exciting academic cross-fertilisation may occur between the physical and social sciences in this area, care also needs to be taken to not naively accept a theory developed in one field for application in another without an independently thoughtout and robust case for doing so. On this point Thrift emphatically states that complexity theory Ã¢â¬Ëdoes have interesting and even important things to sayÃ¢â¬â¢ (Thrift, 1999:32-33, emphasis in the original): Here, furthermore, is a body of theory that is preternaturally spatial: it is possible to argue that complexity theory is about, precisely, the spatial ordering that arises from injections of energy. Whereas previous bodies of scientific theory were chiefly concerned with temporal progression, complexity theory is equally concerned with space. Its whole structure depends upon emergent properties arising out of excitable spatial orders over time. And here, most of all, is a body of theory which asks questions about `instability, crisis, differentiation, catastrophes and impassesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Stengers, 1997: 4) in ways which suggest that there is an obvious affinity between the `naturalÃ¢â¬â¢ and `humanÃ¢â¬â¢ sciences, a constant dream of geography. Such a movement is not, however, altogether as new as the recent Ã¢â¬Ëcomplexity hypeÃ¢â¬â¢ of Lewin might suggest. Scholars since at least the time of the Scottish Enlightenment and the work of Malthus, whose ideas helped inspire the work of Charles Darwin, have sought to conceptualise the economy as a spontaneous (or emergent) system Ã¢â¬â in that it is a result of human action, but not the execution of any human design (e.g. Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s invisible hand) with individuals, firms and governments processing information and adapting their behaviour giving rise to spat ially distinctive patterns of economic development over time. For example, the Austrian School economist Fredrick von Hayek in his 1974 Nobel lecture argued: Organized complexity here means that the character of the structures showing it depends not only on the properties of the individual elements of which they are composed, and the relative frequency with which they occur, but also on the manner in which the individual elements are connected with each otherÃ¢â¬ ¦ In the explanation of the working of such structures we can for this reason not replace the information about the individual elements by statistical information, but require full information about each element if from our theory we are to derive specific predictions about individual events. In this statement Hayek emphasises that to fully ascertain the working of the economic system, the researcher should look, in addition to quantitative Ã¢â¬Ëstatistical informationÃ¢â¬â¢, to qualitative Ã¢â¬Ëfull informationÃ¢â¬â¢ on each element of the system. Here Hayek draws attention t o the distinction between the human capacity to observe and predict the behaviour of simple systems (such as in Newtonian physics) and the more complex systems found in economics, biology and psychology. Hayek, (1974) also also highlights the importance of recognising the limitations of prediction when dealing with complex systems where only Ã¢â¬Ëpattern predictionsÃ¢â¬â¢ are possible as contrasted with the more precise predictions that can be made of non-complex phenomena. Often all that we shall be able to predict will be some abstract characteristic of the pattern that will appear Ã¢â¬â relations between kinds of elements about which individually we know very little. Yet, as I am anxious to repeat, we will still achieve predictions which can be falsified and which therefore are of empirical significance. Next Page Ã¢â¬â Ch 3: Three Emergent Patterns Previous Page Ã¢â¬â Ch 3: The Mechanics of Change
Sunday, March 8, 2020
buy custom The Work of Children essay I agree that the play is a work of children. The characters in the play are acting in the capacity of young children. They are attempting to bring out the scenario in the real world of children. The evidence of the play is brought out in the statement that the play cannot be convincing or interesting as the children. It took the characters a great deal of practice to do what was, well, childs play in the nursery (Paley, 2005). Address language, conversation, and stories and their role in play, according to Paley The language use in the play is child language. It is less sensible as it picks on anything randomly and gives a narration which has no direction in itself. The language uses sound devises such as Ahzz! Water, water! Gulp, gulp, gulp, come on, drink it! The language is the child version way of communication. Similarly, the conversation lacks the connection to be one contribution discussion. Every child does her things independently but talking to each other simultaneously at the same time. Each child in the play is pursuing a fantasy but seem to be aware of the other childcontribution in the play (Layne, 2007). Select one anecdote from the book, and discuss why it holds meaning for you in the context of the concept of play One anecdote from the book I select is the victory story of Vijay. It is an interesting one because of its tragedy and the victory. The plane crash into OHare, and into the Westin tall building. The plane was fixed by the mechanics and people were fixed by the doctors. The building was not fixed because it was on fire. The victory repeats when the people go home in her story (Cooper, 2009). Compare two children mentioned in the book, and discuss how their situation represents the concept of the importance of the play The two children mentions in the play are Kostos and Vijay. The Vijay story is about a plane that crash into an OHare, and into the Westin tall building. In his story, the tragedy was the plane crashing into the building (Bjorklund, Blasi, 2011). The plane was damage, the building burns and the people were injured. There was a victory on his story. There weree fixers who help to fix the damages. The fixers are mechanics, doctors and firemen (Rodney, 2009). Address the view of the concept of fantacy and imagination, as presented by by paley, with supporting details The concept of fantasy is brought out in the story of Kostos and Vijay. The plane crashing into an OHare, and into the Westin tall building was deadly tragedy and the narrator cannot be talking about the fixing, that could happen in the real set up. It is a fantasy that there were survivors who they were treated and discharge to go home (O'Loughlin, 2009). Describe the concept, example, or situation in this book which was most meaningful to you The concept which is meaningful to me in the book is the story of Vijay tragedy and victory story. The plane that crash into an OHare, and into the Westin tall building (Bjorklund, 2011). The plane was damage, the building burns and the people were injured. There was a victory on her story. There were fixers who help to fix the damages. The fixers are mechanics, doctors and firemen (Staples, Cochran, 2008). Buy custom The Work of Children essay
Friday, February 21, 2020
ADVANCING YOUR CAREER - Assignment Example are found including intensive care units in hospitals, pediatrics care units, neonatal intensive care units, cardiac care units, telemetry care units, cardiac catheter care units, emergency care units, progressive care units and recovery units. However, the critical care nurses also work in home care, nursing schools and outpatient surgery clinics and centers (Williams & Williams, 2001). My preferred area of practice is working in the management of the advanced critically ill patients in home care healthcare setting. The target group is the critically ill patients who can benefit from home based care and do not require hospital care. These will target the elderly people facing life threatening conditions as well as children. Critical care nurses work in various setting filling many roles that include bedside clinicians, critical care researchers, clinical care specialist, as well as nurse specialists. My preferred role in the critical care setting will be a clinical nurse specialist as well act as a bedside clinician. To become a critical care nurse, the nurse ought to be a registered nurse. This calls for the nurse to achieve an associate or bachelor degree in the nursing profession and as well pass the national Council Licensing Examination. Once the nurse passes the examination, he starts works as a registered nurse in critical care unit for 2 years while continuing their education in critical care nursing. Once attaining the requirements, the nurse needs to take the critical care-nursing certificate awarded by the American association of the critical care nurses. The nurse, however, needs to continue advancing in education to stay updated with the current information, technologies and changing practices (Aldridge, 2012). Critical home based care nurses practice in setting where the patients will require high complex assessment and interventions, high intensive therapies and continues vigilant observations. This requires the use of much machinery and